Changes in airport infrastructure caused by the historical development of aircraft
VydavateľUniversity of Zilina
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The airport infrastructure is constantly influenced by the development of aircraft. It has always been, that the aircraft was first designed, and based on its performance parameters and geometrical characteristics, a space for the airport were sought to serve the new aircraft. Even today, we can see the different development of aircraft in different aircraft manufacturers, which determine how the airport infrastructure will change in the future. In the introductory chapters, we analyze several aircraft requirements for airports that have been affected by changes in ground infrastructure and the subsequent development of airports. The main objective of this bachelor thesis is to document the changes in the airport infrastructure caused by the historical development of aircraft. The discussed development of aircraft and reaches out from the beginning of aviation to the end of World War II through the era of jet aircraft to large-scale long-haul aircraft. Based on the creation of a database of aircraft and a description of typical aircraft representatives of the period, an analysis of their parameters and the described impact on selected airports is performed. Three historical international airports were selected for a detailed analysis of airport development. There are two analyzed airports in Europe: Munich Riem together with Munich - Franz Josef Strauß and Amsterdam Schiphol. In the United States, John F Kennedy Airport is chosen near New York City in terms of the highest airline utilization. Until 1951, selected airports were analyzed from historical footage and, after the publication of ICAO Annex 14 Aerodromes, also documented by changes in the regulation. Airports had to adapt to changes in environmental requirements and the introduction of new technologies in the form of more fuel-efficient and smaller commercial aircraft. One of the benefits of the thesis is to emphasize the need to plan airport changes in relation to the needs of aircraft technology in the future. This area includes the planning and modernization of runways (RWY), terminals, aprons and stands. At present, RWY design pays attention to reducing noise in suburban areas, reducing turn-round time at stands by using jetways, the number of taxiways (TWY) connecting the RWY to the airport and operating aircraft with a smaller code letter.